Romans at War: The Roman Military in the Republic and Empire
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As before, once opposition to the triumvirate was crushed, it started to tear at itself. The triumvirate expired on the last day of 33 BC and was not renewed in law and in 31 BC, war began again. At the Battle of Actium,  Octavian decisively defeated Antony and Cleopatra in a naval battle near Greece, using fire to destroy the enemy fleet.  Caesar's first invasion of Britain – Caesar crosses the English Channel, winning a battle against the Celtic Britons, but achieves little else. We care about our planet! We contribute a share of our revenue to remove carbon from the atmosphere.
Jones, Jim (2013). "Roman History Timeline" (PDF). West Chester University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2023 . Retrieved 2 April 2023. Find sources: "List of Roman external wars and battles"– news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( April 2023) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message)Rodgers, Nigel. The Roman Army: Legions, Wars and Campaigns: A Military History of the World's First Superpower From the Rise of the Republic and the Might of the Empire to the Fall of the West , Southwater, 2005, ISBN 1-84476-210-6 Caesar defeated the Helvetii in 58 BC at the Battle of the Arar and Battle of Bibracte,  the Belgic confederacy known as the Belgae at the Battle of the Axona,   the Nervii in 57 BC at the Battle of the Sabis,   the Aquitani, Treviri, Tencteri, Aedui and Eburones in unknown battles,  and the Veneti in 56 BC.  In 55 and 54 BC he made two expeditions to Britain.   In 52 BC, following the Siege of Avaricum and a string of inconclusive battles,  Caesar defeated a union of Gauls led by Vercingetorix  at the Battle of Alesia,   completing the Roman conquest of Transalpine Gaul. By 50 BC, the entirety of Gaul lay in Roman hands.  Caesar recorded his own accounts of these campaigns in Commentarii de Bello Gallico ("Commentaries on the Gallic War").
BC - Battle of Aquae Sextiae - Romans under Gaius Marius defeat Teutons, with mass suicides among the captured women. Battle of the Ticinus – Hannibal defeats the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio the elder in a cavalry fight. The situation was complex, often with three or more usurpers in existence at once. Septimius Severus and Pescennius Niger, both rebel generals declared to be emperors by the troops they commanded, clashed for the first time in 193 AD at the Battle of Cyzicus, in which Niger was defeated. However, it took two further defeats at the Battle of Nicaea later that year and the Battle of Issus the following year, for Niger to be destroyed. Almost as soon as Niger's usurpation had been ended, Severus was forced to deal with another rival for the throne in the person of Clodius Albinus, who had originally been allied to Severus. Albinus was proclaimed emperor by his troops in Britain and, crossing over to Gaul, defeated Severus' general Virius Lupus in battle, before being in turn defeated and killed in the Battle of Lugdunum by Severus himself.
Aelius Gallus Attempts the Conquest of Arabia—and Reaches the Limits of Roman Power | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com . Retrieved 2023-05-30.